An high voltage insulator is a material that impedes the free flow of electrons. Insulators of different classes and materials are used as mechanical supports for transmission and distribution lines, as well as substation lines.
Atoms in an insulator have tightly bound electrons that cannot be easily moved. Other materials — semiconductors and conductors–conduct current more easily. What distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity. Insulators have higher resistivity than semiconductors or conductors. The most common example is nonmetals.
There are several types of electrical insulators, such as suspension insulators, pin insulators, strain Insulators, stay Insulators, shackle Insulators.
The purpose of an insulator or insulator is to insulate a live part of any piece of equipment or machine from another live or uncharged metal part. At lower service voltages, the insulation layer also completely covers the live conductor and acts as a barrier, preventing the live conductor from reaching people or animals. In the case of high voltage overhead transmission and distribution, transmission towers or poles support lines, and insulators are used to insulate live conductors from the towers. Insulators used in power transmission and distribution systems are also required to withstand large tension and pressure or ballast.
Nowadays, polymer or composite insulators are increasingly used in high voltage transmission systems. A polymer insulator has a fiber rod surrounded by a sheath of some polymer. Due to the hydrophobicity of polymer insulator surfaces, dry areas can form between wet areas, resulting in discontinuous wet creepage paths. This phenomenon helps improve the performance of polymer insulators in polluted and coastal areas. Polymer insulators have a big advantage over porcelain insulators in that they are much lighter in weight. It has been reported that the surface of polymer insulators degrades faster than that of porcelain insulators. An important disadvantage of porcelain insulators is that porcelain insulators can withstand large compressive forces but small tensile forces. The surface of porcelain insulator is hydrophilic, i.e. hydrophilic. Polymer insulators age faster than ceramic insulators.
Like all other electrical components, high-voltage insulators need cleaning and maintenance. Insulators are an important part of any machine or equipment. Therefore, they require attention to ensure a long service life.
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